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Definition: -

Tumors or neoplasm are those benign or malignant over growths that can be observed anywhere over the body of the animal. Malignant tumors usually affect elder animals (squamous cell carcinoma) while benign tumors affect younger animals (warts).

Classification and characters: -

Tumors are classified into benign or malignant, and solitary or multiple tumors

Benign tumor

Malignant tumor


Not capsulated

Doesn’t recur after excision

Recur after excision

Slower in growth rate

Develops rapidly

Doesn’t show ulceration

Shows ulceration

Localized tumor, doesn't infiltrate or invade surrounding tissue

Invade surrounding tissue

Have definite shape

Have no definite shape

Doesn’t adhere to the skin

Adhere to skin

Has no metastasis



Connective tissue:

Fibroma, lipoma, myoma, or osteoma

Epithelial tissue:


Endothelial tissue:

Angioma, or lymphangioma


Connective tissue:


Epithelial tissue:


Pigment cells:


Diagnosis: -


2-Clinical signs and involvement of LN                                            

3-Clinical examination

4-Histopathologic examination confirms diagnosis and determines nature of the tumor

Treatment: -

1-Benign Tumor

A-Ligature: -

Pedunculated tumors can be removed by ligation with elastic or rubbery materials and the induced wound is dressed with antiseptic solution. The aim of use of ligature is to close the blood supply of the tumor and to hasten its separation and sloughing.

B-Hot red iron: -

It controls bleeding, and causes necrosis and sloughing of the stump of the tumor.

C-Ecraseur: -

The skin is incised and the chain is applied on the incision.

D-Wart enucleator: -

It is a forceps with excavated jaws and sharp borders used for removal of warts

E-Potential caustics: -

Like arsenal paste, nitric acid, acetic acid, salicylic acid, or liquor of potassae

F-Surgical excision: -

2-Malignant Tumor

Generally, the success rate of treatment of malignant tumors is very low

A-Radiotherapy: -

The aim of use of this method is the destruction of malignant cells by gamma radiation. Anyway this technique is better to be used in adjunction with surgical de-bulking.

B-Cryotherapy: -

It depends up on two cycles of freezing and thawing. Freezing predisposes to ice crystals formation within the cell, and the volume of these crystals is larger than the volume of water leading to rupture of cells.

C-Immunotherapy: -

By using BCG that is injected 1 ml/cm3 once a week for 4 weeks. Severe reaction and necrosis of the tissue occurs. This technique is used for treatment of sarcoma in equine.

D-Surgical Excision: -

Alone, it is of no value as there is high probability of recurrence of the tumor