3-Fore & hind limbs

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1-Traumatic division of digital extensor tendons: -


Division of common and/ or lateral digital extensor tendons in the forelimb (from the carpus to the fetlock), or long and/ or lateral digital extensor tendon in hind limb (below the hock)

Etiology: Wire cuts


1-Inability to extend the toe or to bear weight

2-The animal can bear weight if the limb is put down him

3-Forcing of the anterior surface of the fetlock to the ground


No need for suturing the tendon (good regeneration)

1-Treatment of the wound                  

2-Application of case 4-6 weeks

3-Corrective shoeing by using long toe (7 cm) to which a metal bar is welded and fixed to the padded limb to keep the limb extended, and the bar can be removed later on but the toe extension should be kept for 4 months


*Guarded to favorable

2-Traumatic division of digital flexor tendons: -


It is division of the digital flexor tendon between the carpus or the tarsus and fetlock. The great difficulty is the reestablishing of the gliding surface of the tendon 





1-Presence of wound, and if the wound is old, it predisposes to suppurative tendinitis with swelling of the limb (variable size). This increases scar formation and lower chance of full recovery

2-Severe lameness

3-Tendons that may rupture are superficial tendon; superficial and deep tendons; superficial and deep tendons, and suspensory ligament; and inferior check ligament if the wound ensues above the middle of the metacarpus

a-Superficial tendon

It is characterized by dropping of the fetlock without hitting the ground 

b-Deep tendon

It ensues as a result of laceration below the distal end of the 1st phalanx

c-Superficial and deep tendons

The toe comes up to air when the limb is placed in ground, with dropping of the fetlock

d-Superficial and deep tendons, and suspensory ligament

The fetlock rests on the ground



2-Examination and probing of the wound


1-Euthansia if both superficial and deep flexors are lacerated

2-If the superficial tendon is severed and the wound is fresh, the tendon should be sutured, application of local antibiotic and anti-inflammatory to the tendon sheath, application of cast with flexion of the fetlock for 6 weeks, and using fetlock-supporting shoe

3-If both flexors are severed with or without inferior check ligament, the tendons are sutured, cast is applied with flexion of the fetlock for 6 weeks, and supportive bandage and fetlock-supporting shoe are used for 4 months followed by shoe with 6 cm trailers on the heels (shorter in forelimb)



*Unfavorable if both flexors and suspensory, or suppurative tendinitis present 

3-Windpuffs or Wind galls: -


Excessive synovial distension of joint capsule, tendon sheath, or bursa below carpus or tarsus, with no lameness, and once it appears, it remains for life


1-Base narrow, or base wide

2-Nutritional deficiency in young horses                   

3-Heavy training of young horses (fetlock joint capsule, tarsal sheath, and flexor tendon sheath)



1-Firm fluid swelling above and anterior to sesamoidean bones between suspensory ligament and cannon bone (fetlock)

2-Firm fluid swelling, above sesamoidean bone, between suspensory ligament and flexor tendons (flexor tendon sheath)

3-The swelling harden with time as a result of fibrosis

4-Signs of lameness appears only if arthritis, bursitis, tendinitis


It is neither effective nor required if there is no lameness

1-Treatment of serous arthritis or tenosynovitis when they associate the condition

2-No rest, but just reduction of work during its first appearance with no lameness

3-Rest if lameness is present, with injection of corticoid and application of supportive bandage


*Favorable if there is no lameness                                         

*Guarded in presence of lameness

4-Constriction of palmar (volar) or planter annular ligament: -

Constriction ensues as a result of inflammation of flexors and adhesion of annular ligament (absolute) or swelling of the tendon it self (relative)


1-Trauma to flexors                    

2-Infection of flexors                        

3-Puncture wound of flexors


1-Thickening of superficial flexor

2-Palpation reveals thickening and fibrosis between annular ligament and superficial flexor

3-Distention of tendon sheath of flexors proximal to annular ligament and notching above the ergot

4-Persistent lameness that increase with exercise and time

5-Continuous pressure causes necrosis and sloughing of superficial flexor



2- Examination 

3-Difefrential diagnosis from low bowed tendon (recovery after rest)


The only effective treatment is the resection of annular ligament and tendon sheath, application of elastic bandage, and mild exercise after 3 days to avoid adhesion


*Favorable when it is primary constriction of annular ligament without extensive changes of tendons (bowed tendon)

5-Fracture of 1st and 2nd phalanx: -

More common affection of the hind legs as a result very sharp turns on one hind leg, and this fracture may be comminuted, chip, or longitudinal fracture


1-Trauma especially with twisting of the limb                                            

2-Shoeing with heel calks


1-Lifting of the affected limb                    

2-Swelling over pastern area

3-Bone prominence, similar to ring bone, over affected area in old cases

4-Severe lameness                                     

5-Crepitation especially with comminuted fracture





4-Differential diagnosis from dislocation of pastern (it has crepitation too)


1-Supportive elastic bandage for the corresponding sound limb

2-Application of plaster cast for 2 months (changed every 3 weeks) then,

a-Rest for 30 days after removal of the cast 

b-Using 7 cm trailer shoe for 6 weeks after removal of the cast 

c-Full roller motion shoe if ankylosis is present

3-Bone screw for fixation of longitudinal fracture or chip fracture, followed by cast application

4-Arthrodesis for induction of ankylosis of the pastern joint if the joint is severely involved


*Guarded if pastern joint involved

*Unfavorable if fracture extends to fetlock or coffin joint